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Johnson, T. (1995). Characteristics
of a Successful Learner. Paper presented at the Connections'95, University
of Victoria Faculty of Education. Retrieved March 2, 2003 from the World Wide
The group forms a circle. The teacher asks a question
that everybody answers, for example, "How many brothers or sisters
do you have?" or "What is your favorite color?" The
layers commonly used here are: (1) the teacher asks the first few
questions, then (2) the opportunity is given to the group members
to question the group. (Allen, p81)
Questions that provide some insight into the personality
of the group members or that will open up conversations are best. For
example what is your favourite film?; TV show?; Book?; Holiday spot?.
Do you play a musical instrument? When inviting group members to ask
questions of the group the questioner should answer the question and
then answer it for the group.
In this activity, a circle of chairs is used. One person,
however does not have a seat, and he or she is instructed to stand
in the middle of the group. This person makes a statement beginning
with the words "All my neighbors who..." and completes it
with anything such as "...are wearing tennis shoes" or"...have
something blue on" or "...ate breakfast this morning."
Those people who fit the stated category must leave their chair and
find a new place to sit. At the same time, the person in the middle
finds a seat, meaning that someone new will not have a chair. That
person now comes to the center of the group and makes a new statement
beginning with those same first four words. The three layers commonly
used in this activity are: (1) exactly as described here, (2) adding
the words "...have ever..." and (3) stealing, which occurs
if two students can "steal" places, meaning they can exchange
seats with another seated individual while the person in the middle
is thinking of the next idea. (Allen, p81)
The word 'pedagogy', which comes from the Greek
'peda' (children) and 'gogy' (teaching), is itself contested.
A literal translation of the term simply implies the teaching of children.
To be good at pedagogy, or to be a good pedagogue, you have to be good
at teaching children. http://www.deakin.edu.au/education/crt_pe/teaching/default.htm
...the current definition of pedagogy as "the
art or profession of teaching" (American Heritage, p. 914).
The concept of "teaching children" no longer seems to inhere
to the term pedagogy. http://www.anrecs.msu.edu/research/ferro.htm
Andragogy is defined by Knowles (1984) as the art and
science of adult learning. It is to be distinguished from the strict
definition of pedagogy, which is the art and science of teaching
In 1968, Knowles brought the concept of andragogy, which
was being used extensively in Europe, to the United States. He defined
andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn"
(Merrium & Brockett, 1997, p. 15). This definition contrasted with
the definition of pedagogy, or the science and art of educating
children (Merrium & Brockett, 1997).
Artist: Pieter Bruegel
Title: Children's Games
Medium: Oil on Wood
Original Size: 161 x 118 cm
Updated January 2002. The Elements of Style was brought to the
general public by a former student of William Strunk, E. B. White. In the 1950s
White polished the original which was then published by Macmillan. It was revised
in 1972, and updated in 1979, again by E. B. White. The fourth edition brings
the work current to the 21st century. Everyone who writes has--at some time--studied
Strunk & White.
First, Foucault does not understand discourse simply as language-based;
rather, discourse is materialized in a range of disparate texts, utterances,
fields of knowledge, social practices, and modes of thought. In his article on
Discourse in Critical Terms for Literary Study, Paul A. Bové
addresses the full range of discourses meaning in the following way: Discourse
provides a privileged entry into the poststructuralist mode of thought precisely
because it is the organized and regulated, as well as the regulating and constituting,
functions of language that it studies: its aim is to describe the surface linkages
between power, knowledge, institutions, intellectuals, the control of populations,
and the modern state as these intersect in the functions of systems of thought
(54-55). Second, Foucault uses the concept of discourse in order to rethink
the protocols of rational thought. By analyzing the ways that knowledge
is circulated, organized, and materialized in institutions, Foucault offers a
critique of the idea that rationality or truth could ever exist completely apart
from the machinations of power. http://icg.harvard.edu/~lit105/Class_Dictionary/Discourse.htm
For Foucault, a "discourse" is a body of thought
and writing that is united by having a common object of study, a common methodology,
and/or a set of common terms and ideas; the idea of discourse thus allows Foucault
to talk about a wide variety of texts, from different countries and different
historical periods and different disciplines and different genres. For example,
the "discourse" on blindness would include writings by schools for the
blind, writings by doctors who work with vision and blindness, novels with blind
characters, and autobiographies of blind people, as well as writing about blindness
from other disciplines. http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/foucault.html
A BRIEF WORD ON "DISCOURSE"
Foucault is generally seen as being the theorist who
has best articulated the idea of discourse, and he provides
many examples to illustrate its nature and power. One example is his
discussion on the discourse of "madness" (Foucault,
1967) which indicates how the understanding of madness changed over
centuries. A "madman" during the middle ages was perceived
as someone blessed by God, or under the influence of Satan. Earlier
this century the discourse on madness has come under the control of
a medical "lens", so that it was often seen as a biological
failing involving either genetics or nerochemicals. This has progressed
to a point where we now see "madness" as an interaction
between biology, experience and social context. Of primary importance
is that these understandings then lead to social attitudes and shape
social action such as practicing exorcisms, burning people,
locking them away, or giving them drugs. Of course, discourses vary
across cultures as well as time, and even vary within cultures. A
comment was made at this conference that seeing visions and hearing
voices need not constitute madness in aboriginal cultures, as is also
the case in a number of other cultures. Thus, the social actions in
response to a persons "madness" will vary. http://www.menshealth.uws.edu.au/Documents/Discourse_masculinities.html
Post-Structuralism is a body of work that is a response to
structuralism; it rejects structuralism yet for various reasons
still defines itself in relation to it. So the best way to understand
post-structuralism is to understand structuralism. (more)
The painting The Huntsman's Pet - Fox Hounds by Arthur Elsley
(1860-1952) shows two children admiring a Fox Hound puppy.
The boy and girl
are both dressed in upper class clothes. The puppy is being shown to them by a
Huntsman dressed in a red hunting jacket and black riding cap.
is an English rural idle typical of Elsley's style. The sky is blue with some
light clouds, in the distance we can see a lake or river with steps descending
to the water.
Trees are in leaf and Roses bloom on a stonework wall setting
the scene in spring or early summer.
The children appear delighted to see
the puppy. Both children appear to be on their way either to or from playing.
Their parents are not present and it looks like the encounter with the Huntsman
and his puppy was a spontaneous one.
The boy is pictured holding a tennis
racket with a tennis ball at his feet. The girl is holding the paw of the puppy
and appears to want to hold the puppy. The boy is dressed in a jacket and short
pants the girl in a yellow dress with pink sash.
The girl appears to be
around 4 - 5 years of age with the boy both older and taller at around 6 - 7 years
The paintings by Elsley typically
portray dogs and children in rural settings. Elsley's paintings were very popular
with the affluent middle class. His paintings were reproduced in large numbers
and he exhibited widely. Today many of his paintings are available as posters
for sale on the Internet.
It appears that the demand for idyllic depictions
of rural family life is as popular today as it was last century when Elsley was
Elsley was a well-respected and well-known artist with many people
attending exhibitions of his work. Society rewarded him for his artistic merit
and his ability to deliver the idyllic images that he specialised in.
may be that Elsley was painting his father and daughter in this picture.
Huntsman is in his late 60's or early 70's The children pictured are the age of
grandchildren of the Huntsman.
middle of the 19th Century the affluent middle class wanted paintings depicting
an idealised view of everyday family life. The new affluent middle class was particularly
interested in scenes of adorable little children and their pets in playful settings.
Elsley was 45 when he painted The Huntsman's Pet - Fox Hounds at the
time his daughter was 2 (assuming painting 1905) It is possible that he himself
was a doting father who would see those angelic qualities in his own young child,
and wanted to share this with the rest of the world. It is the limitation of his
own fatherhood that might account for such a portrayal of children, and the 'proper'
attitude of servants towards them.
shows an idealised version of childhood at the turn of the nineteenth century,
one that turns from some of the horrors of child abuse and neglect that is so
evident in the writings of Charles Dickens, for example.
In a sense, it
is the peak of Victorian era sentimentality that reinforces all sorts of stereotypes:
the dutiful servant
the barely suitable
clothing for such activity for the idle rich
the ludicrous sporting
Pretty frock, curls, socks etc
for the girl
Suited leisure wear for the boy: distinguished from
the adult male only by the size
Motherly stance from the girl, not
from the boy, re the puppy
obvious, but not sexuality
No gender for the animals
on all the faces
In sum, it is a distortion through stereotyping
that does little to give an understanding of real people represented in this picture.
As such, however, it presents us with a powerful representation of attitudes to
children, childhood, and successful learners. These are young people in the hands
of indulgent inferiors, not expected to do anything much but find amusing ways
to fill in otherwise empty hours of idleness.
Note: Learning Styles are individual and may
vary over time or for different subject matter. These tests give only a general
indication and are not definitive.
If you wish to you can either post the
results from the following tests to the Successful
Learners Forum or you can comment in the forum on your understanding of your
own learning styles both before and after completing these tests.
Learning from Your Mistakes: Understanding Metacognition http://www.ldrc.ca/projects/projects.php?id=23#stencils
This is an interesting test. It is not so much related to Multiple Intelligences
of Learning Styles as to Metacognition. It is probably best used as an extension
activity for students who have completed the above learning styles tests.
Easter Break Friday 9 April Friday 23 April
Note: This is a 3MB file and as such will take a while
Skills Unit. (n.d.). How
to acknowledge sources. Retrieved May 6,
2003, from University of Melbourne, Learning Skills Unit Web
Teachers and principals act in the belief that
all students have both the capacity and the right to learn and should be given
equal opportunity to develop their maximum potential.
Teachers and principals act in the belief that individual differences should be
recognised and responded to by providing learning experiences consistent with
Teachers and principals
act in the belief that the use of a variety of teaching strategies in the implementation
of learning tasks motivates, encourages and challenges students to give their
Teachers and principals, in their position
of trust, recognise that as influential role models their responsibility is to
convey the culture and values of society.
and principals, in their position of trust, recognise that as influential role
models their responsibility is to respect other people's rights to hold different
positions and views in our society.
Donald Schon elucidates on the notion of the loss of the stable
state. Belief in the stable state, he suggests, is belief in
‘the unchangeability, the constancy of central aspects
of our lives, or belief that we can attain such a constancy’
(Schon 1973: 9) In brief, this represents the continuous process
of the transformation our society, and all of its institutions,
as opposed to a state of stasis, and enduring social certainty.
Man must therefore become adept at gaining knowledge, of understanding,
or developing a skill in, by study, instruction or experience.
In applying professional knowledge, teachers need the ability
to recognise the problems encountered, and find a solution.
They must also realise that there is not just one method of
practise or solution. The solution may not be predictable; it
is primarily an on-the-spot response. Schon calls it reflection-in-action.
This idea goes beyond the auspices of Deweyan thought. It characterises
practitioners as being able to think while acting, spontaneously,
or reflection-in-action, and subsequently, after an action,
consider what has transpired as reflection-on-action. Schon
brought the area of reflection into a centre of understanding
of what professionals do. Reflection in action and reflection
on action are key essentials to his contribution to educational
Schon rejects scientific or intellectual, theoretical knowledge
for practice based common knowledge.
Fendler in her discussion on Schon offers the notion of Feminist
anti-establishment interventions as another influence in the
development of the reflective (Fendler, 2003) Masculine, technical
rationality socialised over time have no agency over one’s
own intelligence and inner voice, which act as sources of empowerment.
Reflection, in this sense, is a way of tapping into the inner
self in a way that has not been potentially corrupted by theoretical
Fendler, l. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors:
Historical influences and political
Educational Researcher, 32(3),
16 - 25.
Schon, D. A. (1973). Beyond the stable state.
follwing hoax is a good example of
why you should cross check information from the Internet this includes e-mail
messages as well as Webpages:
Hi everyone on Maureen's address list
- I also found the said file on my c drive so I am asking you to check yours
and delete as the instructions say below.
I'm sorry for the inconvenience Write
to me soon anyway Maureen
> Hi Everyone! > Received the following
from my brother-in -law. > I followed the procedure and found it on my c:
drive. > Good job it is easy to get rid of!!!!!!!!!!!!! > Sorry for
the inconvenience. > Don > >> IMPORTANT FOR EVERYONE! PLEASE
FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW! I HAD > > UNKNOWINGLY RECEIVED THIS VIRUS
AND IT HAS ALREADY BEEN SENT TO EVERYONE > >IN MY CONTACT LIST! THAT
MEANS YOU! > > > > Please check and verify if you have this
virus. It was sent to me and it is said that it is passed on to all the people
in my address list. It is > very probable that you may have it. >
> > > The virus' name is jdbgmgr.exe and it is not detected
with McAfee nor Norton. It remains in your computer's system for 14 days before
it erases all you files. > > > > To delete and eliminate it
completely, please do the following immediately: > > > > 1.
Go to START -- FIND --FILES OR FOLDERS > > > > 2. Under NAMED,
type jdbgmgr.exe and click FIND NOW.Make sure you are looking under Drive (C) >
> > > ******DO NOT CLICK ON IT IF IT APPEARS******** > > >
> 3. If the virus appears *(the icon next to it will be a small teddy bear), >
> the name will be jdbgmgr.exe > > > > 4. *****DO NOT OPEN
IT************ Just right click on it and DELETE it. It will be sent to
the Recycle Bin. > > > > 5. After you see it disappear, go to
the RECYCLE BIN and DELETE it from there as well. If at all possible, EMPTY the
Recycle Bin under FILE. > > > > If you find this virus in your
system, please send this message to everyone in your address list asap before
it causes any damages. >
An e-mail scam. It just goes to show that you should not believe
everything you read...
Dr. Ode Palmer Fax:234-1-7597841. REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE:
I am Dr. Ode Palmer. the chairman of contract award
and review committee set up by the Federal Government Of Nigeria under the new
civilian dispensation to award new contracts and review existing ones. I came
to know of you in my search for a reliable and reputable person to handle a very
confidential transaction, which involves the transfer of a huge sum of money to
a foreign account. There were series of contracts executed by a consortium of
multi-nationals in the oil industry in favour of N.N.P.C. The original value of
these contracts were deliberately over invoiced to the sum of USD$36,561,000.00
(Thirty Six Million, Five hundred and Sixty one thousand United States Dollars).
This amount has now been approved and is now ready to be transferred, being that
the companies that actually executed these contracts have been fully paid and
the projects officially commissioned.
Consequently, my colleagues and I
are willing to transfer the total amount to your account for subsequent disbursement,
since we as civil servants are prohibited by the code of conduct bureau (Civil
Service Law) from operating and/or opening foreign accounts in our names. Needless
to say, the trust reposed on you at this juncture is enormous, in return, we have
agreed to offer you 20% of the transferred sum, while 5% shall be set aside for
incidental expenses (Internal and External) between both parties in the course
of the transaction. You will be mandated to remit the balance to other accounts
in due course.
Modalities have been worked out at the highest level of
the ministry of finance and the Central Bank of Nigeria for the immediate transfer
of the funds within 10 working days subject to your satisfaction of the above
stated terms. Our assurance is that your role is risk free.
To accord this
transaction the legality it deserves and for mutual security of the funds, the
whole approval procedures will officially and legally be processed with your name
or the name of any company you may nominate as the bonafide beneficiary.
more I want you to understand that having put in over twenty five years in the
civil service of my country, I am averse to having my image and career dented.
This matter should therefore be treated with utmost secrecy and urgency It deserves.
you should signify your intention to assist by sending me a Fax (234-1-7597841)
to that effect so that I can brief you further. I want to assure you that this
business proposal is 100% risk free as we have done our home work properly. I
quite believe that you will protect our interest by taking this deal strictly
confidential, as we are still in government service, which we intend to retire
Kindly expedite action, as we are behind schedule, to enable us include
this transfer in the first batch which would constitute the second quarter payments
for the 2002 financial year.
Thanks and God bless.
Dr. Ode Palmer.
N.B: All further correspondence relating to this transaction and genuine intention
to assist should be forwarded to the email address below: firstname.lastname@example.org"
analysis. Retrieved May, 21, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/swot.htm
view these files you will need a copy of Adobe
Acrobat Reader which can be downloaded free of charge by clicking on the 'Get
Acrobat Reader' icon.
Board of Studies. (2000). Curriculum
and standards framework II:
Technology. Carlton: Victorian Board of Studies.
Retrieved March 20, 2004, from:
The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority Web Site: